

This aim of this page is to provide an updated list of references for particle swarm researchers. If you wish your paper to be included, please send me an email
This list is constantly being updated. (last update: 2202004)
1995
 Eberhart, R. C. and Kennedy, J. A new optimizer using particle swarm theory. Proceedings of the Sixth International Symposium on Micromachine and Human Science, Nagoya, Japan. pp. 3943, 1995
 Kennedy, J. and Eberhart, R. C. Particle swarm optimization. Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Neural Networks, Piscataway, NJ. pp. 19421948, 1995
1996
 Eberhart, R. C., Simpson, P. K., and Dobbins, R. W., Computational Intelligence PC tools, 1st ed. ed. Boston, MA: Academic press professional, 1996.
 Jenigiri, S. Comparative study of efficiency of genetic algorithms and particle swarm optimization technique to solve permutation problems. 1996
1997
 Kennedy, J. Minds and cultures: particle swarm implications. Socially Intelligent Agents: Papers from the 1997 AAAI Fall Symposium, Menlo Park, CA. pp. 6772, 1997
 Kennedy, J. The particle swarm: social adaptation of knowledge. Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Evolutionary Computation, Indianapolis, IN. pp. 303308, 1997
 Kennedy, J. and Eberhart, R. C. A discrete binary version of the particle swarm algorithm. Proceedings of the World Multiconference on Systemics,Cybernetics and Informatics 1997, Piscataway, NJ. pp. 41044109, 1997
 Salerno, J. Using the particle swarm optimization technique to train a recurrent neural model. IEEE International Conference on Tools with Artificial Intelligence, 1997, pp. 4549, 1997
1998
 Angeline, P. J. Using selection to improve particle swarm optimization. Proceedings of the IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation (CEC 1998), Anchorage, Alaska, USA. 1998
 Angeline, P. J. Evolutionary optimization versus particle swarm optimization: philosophy and performance differences. Evolutionary Programming VII: Proceedings of the Seventh Annual Conference on Evolutionary Programming, 1998
 Eberhart, R. C. and Shi, Y. Comparison between genetic algorithms and particle swarm optimization. Evolutionary Programming VII: Proceedings of the Seventh Annual Conference on Evolutionary Programming, San Diego, CA. 1998
 Eberhart, R. C. and Shi, Y. Evolving artificial neural networks. Proceedings of International Conference on Neural Networks and Brain, 1998, Beijing, P. R. China. pp. PL5PL13, 1998
 He, Z., Wei, C., Yang, L., Gao, X., Yao, S., Eberhart, R. C., and Shi, Y. Extracting rules from fuzzy neural network by particle swarm optimization. Proceedings of IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation (CEC 1998), Anchorage, Alaska, USA. 1998
 Kennedy, J. The behavior of particles. Evolutionary Programming VII: Proceedings of the Seventh Annual Conference on Evolutionary Programming, San Diego, CA. pp. 581589, 1998
 Kennedy, J., "Thinking is social: experiments with the adaptive culture model," Journal of Conflict Resolution, vol. 42 pp. 5676, 1998.
 Kennedy, J. and Spears, W. Matching algorithms to problems: an experimental test of the particle swarm and some genetic algorithms on thfe multimodal problem generator. Proceedings of IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation (CEC 1998), Anchorage, Alaska, USA. 1998
 Kennedy, J. Methods of agreement: inference among the eleMentals. Proceeding of the International Symposium on Intelligent Control 1998, Piscataway, NJ. pp. 883887, 1998
 Ozcan, E. and Mohan, C. K. Analysis of a simple particle swarm optimization system. Intelligent Engineering Systems Through Artificial Neural Networks, pp. 253258, 1998
 Shi, Y. and Eberhart, R. C. A modified particle swarm optimizer. Proceedings of the IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation (CEC 1998), Piscataway, NJ. pp. 6973, 1998
 Shi, Y. and Eberhart, R. C. Parameter selection in particle swarm optimization. Evolutionary Programming VII: Proceedings of the Seventh Annual Conference on Evolutionary Programming, New York. pp. 591600, 1998
1999
 Clerc, M. The swarm and the queen: towards a deterministic and adaptive particle swarm optimization. Proceedings of the IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation (CEC 1999), pp. 19511957, 1999
 Eberhart, R. C. and Hu, X. Human tremor analysis using particle swarm optimization. Proceedings of the IEEE Congress on evolutionary computation (CEC 1999), Washington D.C. pp. 19271930, 1999
 Engelbrecht, A. P. and Ismail, A., "Training product unit neural networks," Stability and Control: Theory and Applications, vol. 2, no. 12, pp. 5974, 1999.
 Fukuyama, Y., Takayama, S., Nakanishi, Y., and Yoshida, H. A particle swarm optimization for reactive power and voltage control in electric power systems. Proceedings of the Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference 1999 (GECCO 1999), Orlando, Florida, USA. pp. 15231528, 1999
 Ismail, A. and Engelbrecht, A. P. Training Product Units in Feedforward Neural Networks using Particle Swarm Optimization. Proceedings of the International Conference on Artificial Intelligence, Durban, South Africa. pp. 3640, 1999
 Kennedy, J. Small worlds and megaminds: effects of neighborhood topology on particle swarm performance. Proceedings of IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation (CEC 1999), Piscataway, NJ. pp. 19311938, 1999
 Kennedy, J., "Minds and cultures: Particle swarm implications for beings in sociocognitive space," Adaptive Behavior, vol. 7, no. 34, pp. 269288, 1999.
 Kennedy, J. Artificial sociocognition: Cultures of belief in populations of eleMentals. Proceedings of the 1999 International Conference on Virtual Worlds and Simulation, pp. 5055, 1999
 Kennedy, J. and Eberhart, R. C., "The particle swarm: social adaptation in information processing systems.," in Corne, D., Dorigo, M., and Glover, F. (eds.) New Ideas in Optimization London, UK: McGrawHill, 1999.
 Moore, J. and Chapman, R. Application of particle swarm to multiobjective optimization. 1999. Department of Computer Science and Software Engineering, Auburn University.
 Ozcan, E. and Mohan, C. K. Particle swarm optimization: surfing the waves. Proceedings of the IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation (CEC 1999), Washington, DC, USA. 1999
 Shi, Y. and Eberhart, R. C. Empirical study of particle swarm optimization. Proceedings of the IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation (CEC 1999), Piscataway, NJ. pp. 19451950, 1999
 Suganthan, P. N. Particle swarm optimiser with neighbourhood operator. Proceedings of the IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation (CEC 1999), Piscataway, NJ. pp. 19581962, 1999
 van den Bergh, F. Particle swarm weight initialization in multilayer perceptron artificial neural networks. Development and Practice of Artificial Intelligence Techniques, Durban, South Africa. pp. 4145, 1999
 Yoshida, H., Fukuyama, Y., Takayama, S., and Nakanishi, Y. A particle swarm optimization for reactive power and voltage control in electric power systems considering voltage security assessment. Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics 1999, pp. 502, 1999
 Yoshida, H., Kawata, K., Fukuyama, Y., and Nakanishi, Y. A particle swarm optimization for reactive power and voltage control considering voltage stability. Proceedings of the International Conference on Intelligent System Application to Power System, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. pp. 117121, 1999
2000
 Carlisle, A. and Dozier, G. Adapting particle swarm optimization to dynamic environments. Proceedings of International Conference on Artificial Intelligence (ICAI 2000), Las Vegas, Nevada, USA. pp. 429434, 2000
 Dozier, G., Homaifar, A., and Tunstel, E. Neuroevolutionary path planning. Proceedings of the Fifth Joint Conference on Information Sciences, pp. 10271030, 2000
 Eberhart, R. C. and Shi, Y. Comparing inertia weigthts and constriction factors in particle swarm optimization. Proceedings of the IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation (CEC 2000), San Diego, CA. pp. 8488, 2000
 Fourie, P. C. and Groenwold, A. A. Particle swarms in size and shape optimization. Proceedings of the International Workshop on Multidisciplinary Design Optimization, Pretoria, South Africa. pp. 97106, 2000
 Ioan, D., Ciuprina, G., and Munteanu, I. Intelligentparticle swarm optimization. Proceedings of 6th International Workshop on Optimization and Inverse Problems in Electromagnetism (OIPE 2000), Torino, Italy. 2000
 Ismail, A. and Engelbrecht, A. P. Global optimization algorithms for training product unit neural networks. Proceedings of IEEEINNSENNS International Joint Conference on Neural Networks (IJCNN 2000), pp. 132137, 2000
 Kennedy, J. Human and computer learning together in the exteriorized particle swarm. Socially Intelligent Agents: The Human in the Loop (papers from the 2000 Fall Symposium), 2000
 Kennedy, J. Stereotyping: improving particle swarm performance with cluster analysis. Proceedings of the IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation (CEC 2000), San Diego, CA. pp. 15071512, 2000
 Kennedy, J. Sociocognitive computation: a new interdisciplinary convergence. Proceedings of the Virtual Worlds and Simulation Conference, pp. 165170, 2000
 Naka, S., Genji, T., Yura, T., Fukuyama, Y., and Hayashi, N. Distribution state estimation considering nonlinear characteristics of practical equipment using hybrid particle swarm optimization. International Conference on Power System Technology 2000., pp. 10831088, 2000
 Peng, J., Chen, Y., and Eberhart, R. C. Battery pack state of charge estimator design using computational intelligence approaches. The Fifteenth Annual Battery Conference on Applications and Advances 2000., pp. 173177, 2000
 Shi, Y. and Eberhart, R. C. Experimental study of particle swarm optimization. Proceedings of the World Multiconference on Systemics,Cybernetics and Informatics 2000, Orlando, FL. 2000
 van den Bergh, F. and Engelbrecht, A. P., "Cooperative learning in neural networks using particle swarm optimizers," South African Computer Journal, vol. 26 pp. 8490, 2000.
 Wegley, C., Eusuff, M., and Lansey, K. Determining pump operations using particle swarm optimization. Proceedings of the Joint Conference on Water Resources Engineering and Water Resources Planning and Management 2000, Minneapolis, Minnesota. 2000
 Yoshida, H., Kawata, K., Fukuyama, Y., Takayama, S., and Nakanishi, Y., "A particle swarm optimization for reactive power and voltage control considering voltage security assessment," IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 12321239, Nov.2000.
 Zhang, C. and Shao, H. An ANN's evolved by a new evolutionary system and its application. Proceedings of the 39th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control, pp. 35623563, 2000
 Zhang, C., Li, Y., and Shao, H. A new evolved artificial neural network and its application. Proceedings of the 3rd World Congress on Intelligent Control and Automation, Hefei, China. pp. 10651068, 2000
 Zhang, C., Shao, H., and Li, Y. Particle swarm optimisation for evolving artificial neural network. Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics 2000, pp. 24872490, 2000
2001
 Abido, M. A. Particle swarm optimization for multimachine power system stabilizer design. Power Engineering Society Summer Meeting, pp. 13462001, 2001
 Carlisle, A. and Dozier, G. Tracking changing extrema with particle swarm optimizer. Technical Report CSSE0108. 2001. Auburn University.
 Carlisle, A. and Dozier, G. An offtheshelf PSO. Proceedings of the Workshop on Particle Swarm Optimization 2001, Indianapolis, IN. 2001
 Cockshott, A. R. and Hartman, B. E., "Improving the fermentation medium for Echinocandin B production part II: Particle swarm optimization," Process Biochemistry, vol. 36 pp. 661669, 2001.
 Coello Coello, C. A. and Lechuga, M. S. MOPSO: a proposal for multiple objective particle swarm optimization. Technical Report EVOCINV012001. 2001. Mexico, Evolutionary Computation Group at CINVESTAV, Sección de Computación, Departamento de Ingeniería Eléctrica, CINVESTAVIPN.
 Eberhart, R. C. and Shi, Y. Particle swarm optimization: developments, applications and resources. Proceedings of the IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation (CEC 2001), Seoul, Korea. 2001
 Eberhart, R. C. and Shi, Y. Tracking and optimizing dynamic systems with particle swarms. Proceedings of the IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation (CEC 2001), Seoul, Korea. pp. 9497, 2001
 ElGallad, A. I., ElHawary, M. E., Sallam, A. A., and Kalas, A. Swarm intelligence for hybrid cost dispatch problem. Canadian Conference on Electrical and Computer Engineering, 2001, pp. 753757, 2001
 ElGallad, A. I., ElHawary, M. E., and Sallam, A. A., "Swarming of intelligent particles for solving the nonlinear constrained optimization problem," Engineering Intelligent Systems for Electrical Engineering and Communications, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 155163, Sept.2001.
 ElGallad, A. I., ElHawary, M. E., Sallam, A. A., and Kalas, A. Swarmintelligently trained neural network for power transformer protection. Canadian Conference on Electrical and Computer Engineering, 2001, pp. 265269, 2001
 Fan, H.Y. and Shi, Y. Study on Vmax of particle swarm optimization. Proceedings of the Workshop on Particle Swarm Optimization 2001, Indianapolis, IN. 2001
 Fourie, P. C. and Groenwold, A. A. Particle swarms in topology optimization. Extended Abstracts of the Fourth World Congress of Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization, Dalian, China. pp. 5253, 2001
 Fukuyama, Y. and Yoshida, H. A particle swarm optimization for reactive power and voltage control in electric power systems. Proceedigns of the IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation (CEC 2001), Seoul, Korea. 2001
 Fukuyama, Y. State estimation and optimal setting of voltage regulator in distribution systems. IEEE Power Engineering Society Winter Meeting, 2001, pp. 930935, 2001
 Hendtlass, T. and Randall, M. A survey of ant colony and particle swarm metaheuristics and their application to discrete optimisation problems. Proceedings of The Inaugural Workshop on Artificial Life (AL 2001), pp. 1525, 2001
 Hendtlass, T. A combined swarm differential evolution algorithm for optimization problems. Lecture Notes in Computer Science(LNCS) No.2070: Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Industrial and Engineering Applications of Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems (IEA/AIE 2001), Budapest, Hungary. pp. 1118, 2001
 Hu, X. and Eberhart, R. C. Tracking dynamic systems with PSO: where's the cheese? Proceedings of the Workshop on Particle Swarm Optimization 2001, Indianapolis, IN. 2001
 Kennedy, J. Out of the computer, into the world: externalizing the particle swarm. Proceedings of the Workshop on Particle Swarm Optimization 2001, Indianapolis, IN. 2001
 Kennedy, J. Minimal science in a virtual paradigm. Proceedings of the Virtual Worlds and Simulation Conference, pp. 207212, 2001
 Kennedy, J., Eberhart, R. C., and Shi, Y., Swarm intelligence San Francisco: Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, 2001.
 Laskari, E. C., Parsopoulos, K. E., and Vrahatis, M. N. Utilizing evolutionary operators in global optimization with dynamic search trajectories. International Conference on Numerial algorithms, Marrakesh, Morocco. 2001
 Liu, Y., Zhang, H., Chu, X., and Liu, Y. Particle swarm optimization for fault state power supply reliability enhancement. International Conference on Intelligent System Application to Power Systems (ISAP2001), Budapest, Hungary. 2001
 Løvbjerg, M., Rasmussen, T. K., and Krink, T. Hybrid particle swarm optimiser with breeding and subpopulations. Proceedings of the Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference 2001 (GECCO 2001), 2001
 Mitchell, M. and Forrest, S., "Genetic algorithms and artificial life," Artificial Life, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 267289, 2001.
 Mohan, C. K. and Alkazemi, B. Discrete particle swarm optimization. Proceedings of the Workshop on Particle Swarm Optimization 2001, Indianapolis, IN. 2001
 Naka, S., Genji, T., Yura, T., and Fukuyama, Y. Practical distribution state estimation using hybrid particle swarm optimization. IEEE Power Engineering Society Winter Meeting, 2001, Columbus, Ohio, USA. pp. 815820, 2001
 Parsopoulos, K. E., Plagianakos, V. P., Magoulas, G. D., and Vrahatis, M. N. Improving particle swarm optimizer by function "stretching". Advances in Convex Analysis and Global Optimization, pp. 445457, 2001
 Parsopoulos, K. E., Plagianakos, V. P., Magoulas, G. D., and Vrahatis, M. N. Stretching technique for obtaining global minimizers through particle swarm optimization. Proceedings of the Workshop on Particle Swarm Optimization 2001, Indianapolis, IN. 2001
 Parsopoulos, K. E., Plagianakos, V. P., Magoulas, G. D., and Vrahatis, M. N., "Objective function "stretching" to alleviate convergence to local minima," Nonlinear Analysis, Theory, Methods and Applications, vol. 47, no. 5, pp. 34193424, 2001.
 Parsopoulos, K. E. and Vrahatis, M. N. Particle swarm optimizer in noisy and continuously changing environments. Proceeding of the IASTED International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Soft Computing (ASC 2001), Cancun, Mexico. pp. 289294, 2001
 Parsopoulos, K. E. and Vrahatis, M. N. Modification of the particle swarm optimizer for locating all the global minima. Proceedings of the International Conference on Artificial Neural Networks and Genetic Algorithms (ICANNGA 2001), Prague, Czech Republic. pp. 324327, 2001
 Parsopoulos, K. E., Laskari, E. C., and Vrahatis, M. N. Solving L1 norm errorsinvariables problems using particle swarm optimizer. Proceeding of the IASTED International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Soft Computing (ASC 2001), Cancun, Mexico. pp. 185190, 2001
 Parsopoulos, K. E. and Vrahatis, M. N. Particle swarm optimization for imprecise problems. Proceedings of the 5th International Workshop on Mathematical Methods in Scattering Theory and Biomedical Technology, Corfu, Greece. 2001
 Ray, T. and Liew, K. M. A swarm with an effective information sharing mechanism for unconstrained and constrained single objective optimization problem. Proceedings of IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation (CEC 2001), Seoul, Korea. pp. 7580, 2001
 Salman, A., Imtiaz, A., and AlMadani, S. Particle swarm optimization for task assignment problem. IASTED International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Applications (AIA 2001), Marbella, Spain. 2001
 Salman, A., Imtiaz, A., and AlMadani, S. Discrete particle swarm optimization for heterogeneous task assignment problem. Proceedings of World Multiconference on Systemics, Cybernetics and Informatics Cybernetics And Informatics (SCI 2001), 2001
 Secrest, B. R. and Lamont, G. B. Communication in particle swarm optimization illustrated by the traveling salesman problem. Proceedings of the Workshop on Particle Swarm Optimization 2001, Indianapolis, IN. 2001
 Secrest, Barry R., "Traveling salesman problem for surveillance mission using particle swarm optimization." Master's thesis School of Engineering and Management of the Air Force Institue of Technology, Air University, 2001.
 Shi, Y. and Eberhart, R. C. Particle swarm optimization with fuzzy adaptive inerita weight. Proceedings of the Workshop on Particle Swarm Optimization 2001, Indianapolis, IN. 2001
 Shi, Y. and Eberhart, R. C. Fuzzy adaptive particle swarm optimization. Proceedings of the IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation (CEC 2001), Seoul, Korea. 2001
 Tandon, Vipul, "Closing the gap between CAD/CAM and optimized CNC end milling." Master's thesis Purdue School of Engineering and Technology, Indiana University Purdue University Indianapolis, 2001.
 van den Bergh, F. and Engelbrecht, A. P. Training product unit networks using cooperative particle swarm optimisers. Proceedings of INNSIEEE International Joint Conference on Neural Networks 2001, Washington DC, USA. 2001
 van den Bergh, F. and Engelbrecht, A. P. Effects of swarm size on cooperative particle swarm optimisers. Proceedings of the Genetic and Evoluationary Computation Conference 2001, San Francisco, USA. 2001
 Voss, J. L. Minds, cultures, the environment and altruism: a meta model using particle swarm  agent based modeling. Proceedings of the Workshop on Particle Swarm Optimization 2001, Indianapolis, IN. 2001
 Voss, M. S. and Feng, X. Emergent system identification using particle swarm optimization. Complex Adaptive Structures, Hutchinson Island, Florida, USA. 2001
 Voss, M. S. and Feng, X. ARMA model selection using particle swarm optimization and AIC criteria. 15th Triennial World Congress, Barcelona, Spain. 2001
 Yoshida, H., Kawata, K., Fukuyama, Y., Takayama, S., and Nakanishi, Y. A particle swarm optimization for reactive power and voltage control considering voltage security assessment. Proceedings of Power Engineering Society Winter Meeting, 2001, pp. 498, 2001
 Zhang, F. and Xue, D. An optimal concurrent design model using distributed product development lifecycle databases. The Sixth International Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work in Design, pp. 273278, 2001
 Zhang, F. and Xue, D., "Optimal concurrent design based upon distributed product development lifecycle modeling," Robotics and ComputerIntegrated Manufacturing, vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 469486, 2001.
2002
 Abido, M. A., "Optimal design of power system stabilizers using particle swarm optimization," IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 406413, Sept.2002.
 Abido, M. A., "Optimal power flow using particle swarm optimization," International Journal of Electrical Power and Energy Systems, vol. 24, no. 7, pp. 563571, 2002.
 Agrafiotis, D. K. and Cedeno, W., "Feature selection for structureactivity correlation using binary particle swarms," Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, vol. 45, no. 5, pp. 10981107, Feb.2002.
 Alkazemi, B. and Mohan, C. K. Training feedforward neural networks using multiphase particle swarm optimization. Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Neural Information Processing (ICONIP 2002), Singapore. 2002
 Alkazemi, B. and Mohan, C. K. Multiphase generalization of the particle swarm optimization algorithm. Proceedings of the IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation (CEC 2002), Honolulu, Hawaii USA. 2002
 Alkazemi, B. and Mohan, C. K. Multiphase discrete particle swarm optimiziation. Proceeding of Fourth International Workshop on Frontiers in Evolutionary Algorithms (FEA 2002), 2002
 Beielstein, T., Parsopoulos, K. E., and Vrahatis, M. N. Tuning PSO parameters through sensitivity analysis. Technical Report, Reihe Computational Intelligence CI 124/02. 2002. Collaborative Research Center (Sonderforschungsbereich) Department of Computer Science, University of Dortmund.
 Blackwell, T. M. and Bentley, P. J. Improvised music with swarms. Proceedings of the IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation (CEC 2002), Honolulu, Hawaii USA. 2002
 Blackwell, T. M. and Bentley, P. J. Dynamic search with charged swarms. Proceedings of the Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference 2002 (GECCO 2002), New York, NY. USA. pp. 1926, 2002
 Blackwell, T. M. and Bentley, P. J. Don't push me! collisionavoiding swarms. Proceedings of the IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation (CEC 2002), Honolulu, Hawaii USA. 2002
 Braendler, D. and Hendtlass, T. The suitability of particle swarm optimisation for training neural hardware. Lecture Notes in Computer Science(LNCS) No.2358: Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Industrial and Engineering, Applications of Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems 2002 (IEA/AIE 2002), Cairns, Australia. 2002
 Brandstatter, B. and Baumgartner, U., "Particle swarm optimizationmassspring system analogon," IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 9971000, Mar.2002.
 Brits, R., Engelbrecht, A. P., and van den Bergh, F. Solving systems of unconstrained equations using particle swarm optimization. Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics 2002 (SMC 2002), Hammamet, Tunisa. pp. 102107, 2002
 Brits, R., Engelbrecht, A. P., and van den Bergh, F. A niching particle swarm optimizer. Proceedings of the 4th AsiaPacific Conference on Simulated Evolution and Learning 2002 (SEAL 2002), Singapore. pp. 692696, 2002
 Carlisle, Anthony, "Applying the particle swarm optimizer to nonstationary environments." Auburn University, Auburn Alabama, 2002.
 Carlisle, A. and Dozier, G. Tracking changing extrema with adaptive particle swarm optimizer. Proceedings of the 5th Biannual World Automation Congress, 2002, Orlando, Florida, USA. pp. 265270, 2002
 Cedeno, W. and Agrafiotis, D. K., "Combining particle swarms and knearest neighbors for the development of quantitative structureactivity relationships," International Journal of Computer Research, 2002.
 Chang, R. F. and Lu, C. N. Feeder reconfiguration for load factor improvement. Proceedings of the IEEE Power Engineering Society Transmission and Distribution Conference, pp. 980984, 2002
 Ciuprina, G., Ioan, D., and Munteanu, I., "Use of intelligentparticle swarm optimization in electromagnetics," IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 10371040, Mar.2002.
 Clerc, M., "L'optimisation par essaim particulaire. Principes, modèles et usages," Hermès, Technique et science informatiques, vol. 21 pp. 941964, 2002.
 Clerc, M. and Kennedy, J., "The particle swarmexplosion, stability, and convergence in a multidimensional complex space," IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 5873, 2002.
 Coelho, J. o. P., Oliveira, P. M., and Cunha, J. B. Greenhouse air temperature control using the particle swarm optimisation algorithm. Proceedings of 15th Triennial World Congress of the International Federation of Automatic Control (IFAC 2002), Barcelona, Spain. 2002
 Coello Coello, C. A., Toscano Pulido, G., and Salazar Lechuga, M. An extension of particle swarm optimization that can handle multiple objectives. Workshop on Multiple Objective Metaheuristics, Paris, France. 2002
 Coello Coello, C. A., Luna, E. H. n., and Aguirre, A. H. n. Use of particle swarm optimization to design combinational logic circuits. Technical Report EVOCINV042002. 2002. Mexico, Evolutionary Computation Group at CINVESTAV, Sección de Computación, Departamento de Ingeniería Eléctrica, CINVESTAVIPN.
 Coello Coello, C. A., Toscano Pulido, G., and Salazar Lechuga, M. Handling multiple objectives with particle swarm optimization. Technical Report EVOCINV022002. 2002. Mexico, Evolutionary Computation Group at CINVESTAV, Sección de Computación, Departamento de Ingeniería Eléctrica, CINVESTAVIPN.
 Coello Coello, C. A. and Lechuga, M. S. MOPSO: a proposal for multiple objective particle swarm optimization. Proceedings of the IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation (CEC 2002), Honolulu, Hawaii USA. 2002
 Conradie, A., Miikkulainen, R., and Aldrich, C. Intelligent process control utilising symbiotic memetic neuroevolution. Proceedings of the IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation (CEC 2002), Hawaii, USA. pp. 623628, 2002
 Conradie, A., Miikkulainen, R., and Aldrich, C. Adaptive control utilizing neural swarming. Proceedings of the Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference 2002 (GECCO 2002), New York, NY. 2002
 Crepinsek, M., Mernik, M., and Zumer, V. Using flocks for solving numerical optimization problems. Proceedings of the 24th International Conference on Information Technology Interfaces (ITI 2002), pp. 395400, 2002
 ElGallad, A. I., ElHawary, M. E., Sallam, A. A., and Kalas, A. Particle swarm optimizer for constrained economic dispatch with prohibited operating zones. Canadian Conference on Electrical and Computer Engineering, 2002, pp. 7881, 2002
 ElGallad, A. I., ElHawary, M. E., Sallam, A. A., and Kalas, A. Enhancing the particle swarm optimizer via proper parameters selection. Canadian Conference on Electrical and Computer Engineering, 2002, pp. 792797, 2002
 ElGallad, A. I., ElHawary, M. E., Phillips, W., and Sallam, A. A. PSObased neural network for dynamic bandwidth reallocation. Proceedings of Large Engineering Systems Conference on Power Engineering 2002 (LESCOPE 2002), pp. 98102, 2002
 ElMounayri, H., Kishawy, H., and Tandon, V., "Optimized CNC endmilling: a practical approach," International Journal of Computer Integrated Manufacturing, vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 453470, 2002.
 ElMounayri, H., Gadallah, M. H., and Briceno, J., "Enhanced modeling and optimization of milling using a hybrid technique," Transactions of the Canadian Society for Mechanical Engineering, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 179199, 2002.
 Elegbede, C. Structural reliability assessment based on BHLsearch by particle swarm optimization. Third International Conference on Mathematical Methods in Reliability, 2002
 Esmin, A. A. A., Aoki, A. R., and LambertTorres, G. Particle swarm optimization for fuzzy membership functions optimization. Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man and Cybernetics 2002, pp. 108113, 2002
 Fan, H.Y., "A modification to particle swarm optimization algorithm," Engineering Computations, vol. 19, no. 78, pp. 970989, 2002.
 Fieldsend, J. E. and Singh, S. A multiobjective algorithm based upon particle swarm optimisation, an efficient data structure and turbulence. Proceedings of the 2002 U.K. Workshop on Computational Intelligence, Birmingham, UK. pp. 3744, 2002
 Fourie, P. C. and Groenwold, A. A., "The particle swarm optimization algorithm in size and shape optimization," Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 259267, May2002.
 Hodgson, R. J. W. Partical swarm optimization applied to the atomic cluster optimization problem. Proceedings of the Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference 2002 (GECCO 2002), New York, NY. pp. 6873, 2002
 Hu, X. and Eberhart, R. C. Solving constrained nonlinear optimization problems with particle swarm optimization. Proceedings of the Sixth World Multiconference on Systemics, Cybernetics and Informatics 2002 (SCI 2002), Orlando, USA. 2002
 Hu, X. and Eberhart, R. C. Adaptive particle swarm optimization: detection and response to dynamic systems. Proceedings of the IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation (CEC 2002), Honolulu, Hawaii USA. pp. 16661670, 2002
 Hu, X. and Eberhart, R. C. Multiobjective optimization using dynamic neighborhood particle swarm optimization. Proceedings of the IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation (CEC 2002), Honolulu, Hawaii USA. pp. 16771681, 2002
 Javier, T. Z. Use of particle swarm optimization in multidimensional scaling. Proceedings of the The 7th International Conference on Parametric Optimization and Related Topics, Puebla, Mexico. 2002
 Kadrovach, B. A. and Lamont, G. B. A particle swarm model for swarmbased networked sensor systems. Proceedings of the 17th symposium on Proceedings of the 2002 ACM symposium on applied computing, Madrid, Spain. pp. 918924, 2002
 Kassabalidis, I. N., ElSharkawi, M. A., and Marks, R. J. I. Border identification for power system security assessment using neural network inversion: an overview. Proceedings of the IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation (CEC 2002), pp. 10751079, 2002
 Kassabalidis, I. N., ElSharkawi, M. A., Marks, R. J. I., Moulin, L. S., and Alves da Silva, A. P., "Dynamic security border identification using enhanced particle swarm optimization," IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, 2002.
 Kennedy, J. and Mendes, R. Population structure and particle swarm performance. Proceedings of the IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation (CEC 2002), Honolulu, Hawaii USA. 2002
 Krink, T. and Løvbjerg, M. The life cycle model: combining particle swarm optimisation, genetic algorithms and hillClimbers. Lecture Notes in Computer Science (LNCS) No. 2439: Proceedings of Parallel Problem Solving from Nature VII (PPSN 2002), pp. 621630, 2002
 Krink, T., Vesterstroem, J. S., and Riget, J. Particle swarm optimisation with spatial particle extension. Proceedings of the IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation (CEC 2002), Honolulu, Hawaii USA. 2002
 Krohling, R. A., Coelho, L. d. S., and Shi, Y. Cooperative particle swarm optimization for robust control system design. Proceedings of the 7th Online World Conference on Soft Computing in Industrial Applications, 2002
 Krohling, R. A., Knidel, H., and Shi, Y. Solving numerical equations of hydraulic problems using particle swarm optimization. Proceedings of the IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation (CEC 2002), Honolulu, Hawaii USA. 2002
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